Capture, Transport and Storage: Uniper Benelux (previously E.ON Benelux) and ENGIE Energie Nederland (previously GDF SUEZ Energie Nederland).

LOCATION: Zuid-Holland, the Netherlands

COcapture source: A new coal and biomass-based power plant within the Maasvlakte section of the Rotterdam port and industrial area, Zuid-Holland

COstorage sites:

  • Primary storage location: A gas reservoir located approximately 3.5 km / 2 miles offshore of the Maasvlakte, under the floor of the North Sea
  • Additional storage location: Several offshore gas reservoirs under the North Sea, but more remote from the power plant than the primary storage location.

INDUSTRY (FEEDSTOCK): Power generation (bituminous coal and biomass)


CO2 CAPTURE CAPACITY VOLUME: 1.1 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa)

CAPTURE TYPE: Post-combustion capture

CAPTURE METHOD:  Absorption chemical solvent-based-process (Amine)

NEW BUILD OR RETROFIT: Retrofit to a plant now commissioning


PRIMARY STORAGE OPTION: Dedicated geological storage – offshore (depleted) gas reservoir

STORAGE FORMATION AND DEPTH: Sandstone at a depth of around 2,800 - 3,000 metres / 9,200 - 9,800 feet below the sea surface


TRANSPORTATION DISTANCE TO INJECTION SITE (LENGTH OF PIPELINE):  For primary injection site:  6 km / 3.7 miles:

  • Approximately 6 km / 3.7 miles onshore


The ROAD project was one of the leading European CCS Projects from 2010 to 2017. During that time, a great deal of project development and engineering work was completed, including full design and procurement to allow a possible FID at end 2011 or early 2012. 

Public “close-out” reports were written after the formal decision to terminate the project was made in September 2017. This set of reports is designed to present the knowledge gained and lessons learnt from the ROAD Project in an accessible form. The reports cover technical issues, financial issues, risk management, permitting and regulation. The objective is to give future CCS project developers, knowledge institutes, researchers and other interested parties the maximum opportunity to use the knowledge gained and lessons learnt by the ROAD project team. 

The public “close-out” reports  are available below.

Project description

The ROAD Project is the Rotterdam Opslag and Afvang Demonstratieproject (Rotterdam Capture and Storage Demonstration Project) which ran from 2009 to 2017, and was one of the leading integrated Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) demonstration projects in the world.

The main objective of ROAD was to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a large-scale, integrated CCS chain deployed on power generation. Previously, CCS had primarily been applied in small-scale test facilities in the power industry. Large-scale demonstration projects were needed to show that CCS could be an efficient and effective CO₂ abatement technology. With the knowledge, experience and innovations gained by projects like ROAD, CCS could be deployed on a larger and broader scale: not only on power plants, but also within the energy intensive industries. CCS is one of the transition technologies expected to make a substantial contribution to achieving European and global climate objectives.

ROAD is a joint project initiated in 2009 by E.ON Benelux and Electrabel Nederland (now Uniper Benelux and Engie Nederland). Together they formed the joint venture Maasvlakte CCS Project C.V. which was the project developer. The ROAD Project is co-financed by the European Commission (EC) within the framework of the European Energy Programme for Recovery (EEPR) and the Government of the Netherlands. The grants amount to € 180 million from the EC and € 150 million from the government of the Netherlands. In addition, the Global CCS Institute is knowledge sharing partner of ROAD and has given a financial support of € 4,3 million to the project. The Port of Rotterdam also agreed to support the project through investment in the CO2 pipeline.

In the first phase of the project, 2009-2012, the project was developed to final investment decision (FID) based on using the P18-4 gas-field operated by TAQA as the CO2 storage location. This required a pipeline of approximately 25km from the capture location (Uniper’s coal-fired Maasvlakte Power Plant – MPP3), about 5km onshore and 20km off-shore.

Unfortunately, the collapse in the carbon price undermined the original business case, and in 2012 a positive FID was not economically possible. The project then entered a “slow-mode” in which activities focused on reducing the funding gap, either by reducing costs or by securing new funding. In late 2014 a possible new funding structure was identified, and explored in 2015 and 2016. This included additional grants for operation and cost reductions. The cost reduction that could be successfully applied was to change storage sink to a newly developed field, Q16-Maas, operated by Oranje-Nassau Energie (ONE). This smaller field was much closer, with only a 6 km pipeline required. This resulted in a remobilization of the project late in 2016, and development of the new scheme. However, in mid 2017 work was again halted, and the grant formally terminated in November 2017.

The ROAD project design applied post combustion technology to capture the CO₂ from the flue gases of a new 1,069 MWe coal-fired power plant (Maasvlakte Power Plant 3, “MPP3”) in the port and industrial area of Rotterdam.

The capture unit has a design capacity of 250 MWe equivalent. During the operational phase of the project, approximately 1.1 megatons of CO₂ per year would be capture and stored, with a full-load flow of 47kg/s (169 t/h) of CO2. For transport and storage two alternatives were developed as described above: storage in the P18- 4 reservoir operated by TAQA; and storage in the Q16-Maas reservoir operated by Oranje-Nassau Energie.

After a competitive FEED process, Fluor was selected as the supplier for the capture technology in early 2011. The plant was fully engineered, and long lead items contracted for, ready for an FID in early 2012. All the necessary permitting was completed, with a permit for the capture plant being granted in 2012. Following the delay to the project, an updated design was developed with Fluor in 2017 incorporating lessons learnt from research and development in the intervening years, changes to the MPP3 site, and the impact of the changes to the transport and storage system. A revision to the permit was under development when the project was halted.

Latitude: 51.9628

Longitude: 4.02222

Key project milestones

April 2008:  Uniper Benelux commences construction of new coal and biomass-based power plant within the Maasvlakte section of the Rotterdam port and industrial area.

December 2009: The European Commission awards €180 million in funding available under its European Energy Program for Recovery (EEPR) to Maasvlakte CCS Project C.V. joint venture.

May 2010: The Dutch Government announces commitment to provide €150 million for the period 2010-2020 to support the ROAD Project.

September 2010: Front-end engineering design (FEED) studies for capture plant completed.

June 2011: The ROAD Project submits an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and permit applications to relevant authorities.

March 2012: The EC adopts draft storage permit for the initial storage site for the ROAD Project (the permits requires a detailed update prior to the commencement of injection).

March – July 2012:  ROAD largely demobilises and enters “slow mode”, as low carbon price forecasts had created a funding gap, preventing a positive FID.  Subsequent activities focus on closing the funding gap. 

September 2013: Storage permit for the initial storage site definitive and irrevocable

May 2014: Publication of definitive state zoning plan.  Transport permits ready, but pending signal from ROAD on intended FID before formal issue.

2015: Development of new project set-up and identification of additional funding sources

2017: In mid 2017 work was halted, and the grant formally terminated in November 2017. The formal decision to terminate the project was made in September 2017.

Project Website

ROAD Project: Public Close-out Reports






Introduce and summarise the public close-out reports.


Capture and Compression

Technical report covering capture, compression and power plant integration.



Technical report covering CO2 pipeline transport.


CO2 Storage

Both technical and commercial aspects of CO2 storage for ROAD. Subsurface work required to demonstrate permanent storage is described.


Risk Management

The risk management approach used by ROAD.


Permitting and Regulation

Description of the regulatory and permitting framework and process for the ROAD project, including required changes to regulations.


Governance and Compliance

Company structure and governance for Maasvlakte CCS Project C.V., the joint venture undertaking the ROAD Project.


Project Costs and Funding

A presentation of the projected economics of the project, with both projected income and costs.


Finance and Control

Description of the financial and control systems, including the costs incurred and grants claimed.


Knowledge Sharing

Outline of the Knowledge Sharing & Dissemination plan as developed by the ROAD project and completed KS deliverables and actions.


Public Engagement

Description of how ROAD organized and managed the Public Engagement process.