Capture, Transport and Storage: Uniper Benelux (previously E.ON Benelux) and ENGIE Energie Nederland (previously GDF SUEZ Energie Nederland).

LOCATION: Zuid-Holland, the Netherlands

COcapture source: A new coal and biomass-based power plant within the Maasvlakte section of the Rotterdam port and industrial area, Zuid-Holland

COstorage sites:

  • Primary storage location: A gas reservoir located approximately 3.5 km / 2 miles offshore of the Maasvlakte, under the floor of the North Sea
  • Additional storage location: Several offshore gas reservoirs under the North Sea, but more remote from the power plant than the primary storage location.

INDUSTRY (FEEDSTOCK): Power generation (bituminous coal and biomass)


CO2 CAPTURE CAPACITY VOLUME: 1.1 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa)

CAPTURE TYPE: Post-combustion capture

CAPTURE METHOD:  Absorption chemical solvent-based-process (Amine)

NEW BUILD OR RETROFIT: Retrofit to a plant now commissioning


PRIMARY STORAGE OPTION: Dedicated geological storage – offshore (depleted) gas reservoir

STORAGE FORMATION AND DEPTH: Sandstone at a depth of around 2,800 - 3,000 metres / 9,200 - 9,800 feet below the sea surface


TRANSPORTATION DISTANCE TO INJECTION SITE (LENGTH OF PIPELINE):  For primary injection site:  6 km / 3.7 miles:

  • Approximately 6 km / 3.7 miles onshore

Project description

Maasvlakte CCS Project C.V., a joint venture between Uniper Benelux (previously E.ON Benelux) and ENGIE Energie Nederland (previously GDF SUEZ Energie Nederland), is responsible for managing all aspects of the ROAD Project. The Project’s intended partners for storage is Oranje-Nassau Energie B.V. (ONE).

The ROAD Project involves the retrofit of a 250 MWe equivalent post-combustion capture and compression unit to a newly constructed 1,070 MWe ultra-supercritical power plant located within the Maasvlakte section of the Rotterdam port and industrial area in Zuid‑Holland. In 2008, Uniper Benelux began construction of its new €1.2 billion Maasvlakte Power Plant 3 (MPP3), in a location adjacent to its existing Maasvlakte 1 and 2 Power Plants. The new coal-fired unit which has the capacity to burn biomass (up to around 20 per cent weight) as a substitute feedstock, became operational in 2015.

The retrofitted post-combustion capture and compression unit will have the capacity to capture 1.1 million tonnes of CO2 per annum from the slipstream of about 23.4 per cent of the flue gases produced by MPP3, at a 90 per cent capture rate. Prior to transport the CO2 will be more than 99 per cent pure.

CO2 captured from the MPP3 will be compressed, cooled, dehydrated and metered onsite. It will then be transported 6 km / 3 miles over land via a 600 mm / 24 inch pipeline that commences at the discharge of CO2 compressor and crosses Rotterdam’s Yangtze Harbour to the onshore production facility of ONE on the Maasvlakte.

The ROAD Project intends to store the captured CO2 in the offshore gas and condensate field Q16-Maas operated by ONEwhich is currently still in production. Q16-Maas is located offshore 3.5 km of the production facility of ONE on the Maasvlakte and started production in May 2014.

It is being accessed through a single long reach 5 km well drilled directly from the onshore production facility of ONE  The top of the Q16-Maas storage complex is below 2,800 m under the sea bed of the North and. Q16-Maas has an estimate storage capacity of 2-4 Mt.

The Q16-Maas is an underground geological complex that is suitable for the safe and permanent storage of CO2. However, because of its proximity to the Dutch coast Q16-Maas may in future also be used as buffer store for the supply of CO2 to greenhouses near the Rotterdam port and industrial area. Therefore, the ROAD project also foresees a connection to the existing OCAP network, currently supplying 400 kt of CO2 per year to greenhouses in the Westland area. This new connection allows expanding the CO2 supply of greenhouses to a volume of 900 kt CO2 per year.

All of the ROAD Project’s capture permits have been granted by the relevant authorities. The project has also been awarded the required storage permits for P18-4, having met the application requirements stipulated under the European Commission’s (EC) CCS Directive. 

An Environmental Impact Assessment was completed by the ROAD Project and submitted to the appropriate authorities in June 2011. A monitoring plan, a corrective measures plan and a closure plan will also be developed by the project and submitted to the competent authorities, as obligated by the CCS Directive.

The ROAD Project is one of the most advanced CCS projects currently in development planning in Europe and is ready to adopt a final investment decision as soon as additional funding can be secured to close the current funding gap.

Latitude: 51.9628

Longitude: 4.02222


Key project milestones

April 2008:  Uniper Benelux commences construction of new coal and biomass-based power plant within the Maasvlakte section of the Rotterdam port and industrial area.

December 2009: The European Commission awards €180 million in funding available under its European Energy Program for Recovery (EEPR) to Maasvlakte CCS Project C.V. joint venture.

May 2010: The Dutch Government announces commitment to provide €150 million for the period 2010-2020 to support the ROAD Project.

September 2010: Front-end engineering design (FEED) studies for capture plant completed.

June 2011: The ROAD Project submits an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and permit applications to relevant authorities.

March 2012: The EC adopts draft storage permit for the initial storage site for the ROAD Project (the permits requires a detailed update prior to the commencement of injection).

March – July 2012:  ROAD largely demobilises and enters “slow mode”, as low carbon price forecasts had created a funding gap, preventing a positive FID.  Subsequent activities focus on closing the funding gap. 

September 2013: Storage permit for the initial storage site definitive and irrevocable

May 2014: Publication of definitive state zoning plan.  Transport permits ready, but pending signal from ROAD on intended FID before formal issue.

2015: Development of new project set-up and identification of additional funding sources

Project Website