Transportation of CO2 and other gases already occurs in many parts of the world. It can be transported as a solid, liquid, gas, or a dense-phase liquid by a variety of means, including by ship and trucks. For most large-scale projects, pipelines are the favoured method of transporting CO2 between the capture and storage sites, which are providing the lowest cost, safest and most efficient option. In such cases CO2 is usually compressed to a dense phase, (i.e. CO2 demonstrates properties of both liquid and gas.), as this is the most efficient state for pipeline transport. This compression also greatly reduces the volume of CO2, allowing smaller pipes to be used.
All of the Network’s projects are or will be using pipelines to deliver the CO2 to the storage site. The projects use or intent to use offshore pipelines, except from Compostilla project which would use onshore pipeline. Don Valley and ROAD will both require offshore, subsea pipelines to reach the storage location (with varying onshore pipeline components before reaching the sea). Sleipner is already using an extremely short subsea pipeline. The pipeline lengths do not exceed 200km in any of the Network projects.